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5G、急速充電、USB-C™プログラマブルパワーサプライ(PPS)の融合

著者:  Bob Card  - 09-29-2020 

はじめに

2016年に100W(USB3.0)充電仕様が発表された際、消費者は不信感をあらわにしました。「ほとんどのスマートフォンは10Wで充電できるのに、誰がそれほどのパワーを必要とするの?」いえいえ、2020年に発売された5Gスマートフォンの波がこれから起こることの予兆であるなら、45Wのスマートフォン充電器は当たり前になるでしょう。

充電電力が大きくなると、効率の重要性も増大します。USB-C(またはUSB Type C)の最新のPD 3.0規格、具体的にはプログラマブルパワーサプライ(Programmable Power Supply、PPS)は、市場で群を抜いて高効率の充電ソリューションであり、それゆえ今後スマートフォン、タブレット、ノートPCの充電に優先的に選ばれるようになるでしょう。

PD 2.0と比較したPD 3.0PPSのメリット

PD 2.0は、パワーデータオブジェクト(Power Data Objects、PDO)が最大7つという限度があり、これらはUSB-C、CCピンを通じてPDメッセージ内で伝送されソースポートの給電能力またはシンクの電力要求を示すのに使用されます。

これに対しPD 3.0のPPSは図表1に示された「電圧と電流の範囲」のPDOを提供します。PPSの利点は、シンクが固定されたPDOよりも「より細かいステップ」で電圧/電流の変化を要請できることです。これにより、ソースとシンク間の充電効率の最適化が促進されるのです。

図表1

 

5Gスマートフォンのバッテリ容量

最近発売されたある5Gのスマートフォンには、6.9インチのディスプレイ、バッテリ容量5,000mAhのリチウムイオン電池が搭載されており、旧モデルよりも容量が25%増えています。筆者は、ディスプレイのサイズと5Gの両方がバッテリ容量増に一役買っているのではないかと感じています。しかしいずれにしても、バッテリ容量の25%増は、「急速充電」を謳い続けるためにACDCトラベルアダプタ(Travel Adaptor、TA)から更に大きい電力を求められることを意味しています。これを達成するために、USB -C PPSは合理的な選択です。

 

急速充電

「急速充電」という言葉は様々な観点から検討されています。従来、リチウムイオン電池の充電は0.7Cレートで安全に遂行されていました。Cレートとは、単純に充電電流をセル容量で割った値です。たとえば、1,000mAhのセルの0.7Cレートの充電電流は700mAです。ただし、通常空になったセルを0%から50%の充電状態(SoC)まで充電するには~45分(図表2参照)の充電時間(TTC)が必要です。これでは、急速とは言えません。また、TTCを改善するために、単に「電流を上げる」こともできません。データシートに0.7Cレートと規定されているのに1Cレートでセルを充電すると、セルの早期老化の原因となり、回復不能な損傷を招く恐れもあるのです。覚えておくべきは、リチウムイオン電池はそのデータシートによると、最低500サイクルの使用後、最低でも定格容量の80%を維持しているはず、ということです。

 

より速い充電時間(TTC)はパワー増を意味する

TTCを改善するために、セルのメーカーは1C を超えるレートの充電、またはより急速な充電に対応するセルを設計しています。これには、セルの電圧が最大に達して充電プロファイルが定電圧(CV)モードに移行する前に、定電流(CC)モードに留まる時間を長くするv(セルが空の状態から充電開始と想定)、主にセルの内部インピーダンスの低下が伴います。図表2に示したように、0%から50%へのSoCのTTCは、1Cレートで充電を行うと、0.7Cレートの場合よりも15分、1.5Cレートで行うと22分短縮できます。ただし、5000mAhのセルの1.5Cレートには、バッテリに7.5Aの充電と32.6Wの最大充電力が必要とされます。これは体積当たりのエネルギー密度が高いということです。

図表2

 

筆者は最近発売された5Gスマートフォン内部の実際の充電プロファイルに精通しているわけではありませんが、225W PPS充電器が付属されていることは確かで、このスマートフォンは45WのPPS充電器アクセサリに対応すると宣伝されています。(図表3)45Wのトラベルアダプタで充電を開始し、~80%(概算)の効率で電源コンセントからバッテリに充電すると、~36Wがバッテリに充電されることになります。~36Wは、上の図表2の囲み、0%から50%の充電状態(SoC)の充電時間(TTC)~22分で求められる32.6Wという計算値から大きく離れた値ではありません。

1つお伝えしておきたいのは、USB-Cコネクタの最大電流が5Aであるため、7.5A IBATを実現するには5Gスマートフォン内部のUSB Type-Cコネクタと充電器間に「2で割る」チャージポンプが必要ということです。たとえばTAの出力が10V/4Aなら、チャージポンプの出力は5V/8Aとなります(理想的な電力ロスを想定)。これはHVLC(High Voltage, Low Current、高電圧・低電流)と呼ばれることもあります。物理で習うように、消費電力の公式はI2Rですから、LVHC(低電圧高電流)と比較して、HVLCでTAからスマートフォンに電力を運ぶメリットはあります。さらにType Cコネクタの登場により、USB-C PD 2.0のVBUS最大電圧が5Vから20Vに上がり、HVLCのアプローチが可能となっています。

図表3

 

ノートPC PD 2.0の充電様相の観察

5Gスマートフォンの充電器とバッテリ間の実際のIBAT電流は測定できないかもしれませんが、Total Phase®のPDスニファを使ってTAと5Gスマートフォン間のVBUS電圧と電流(IBUS)を測定することはできます。しかしその前に、図表4に示したように、ノート PC とFUSB3307 USB Power Delivery 3.0 アダプティブ・ソース充電コントローラ(Adaptive Source Charging Controller)60W評価ボード(EVB)ソース間で PD 2.0のVBUS/IBUSを観察してみましょう。

このセットアップでは、PD2.0シンクのノート PC とFUSB3307 EVB PD3.0バッテリソースを5Aケーブルで接続しています。FUSB3307 EVBと5Aケーブルの間にTotal Phaseのスニファを接続します。接続後、FUSB3307 EVBは4つの固定PDOと、3つのPPS(によって拡張された)PDOをアドバタイズします。このノート PC は20V/3Aの固定PDOを要求しますが、実際は最大1.5Aしか必要としません。FUSB3307はノート PC の要求を受け、電力供給条件を決定します。図表5を見ると、VBUS(赤線)が20Vへとステップ変化し、(バッテリが空の状態から始めて)ノート PC が立ち上がるにつれて、IBUS電流(青線)が約1.3A、つまり約30Wに上昇していることが確認できます。

図表4、5

 

5GスマートフォンPD 3.0PPSの充電様相の観察

次に、図表6と図表7を見てみましょう。ここでは、ノート PC と5Gスマートフォンを入れ替えて、さらに電源を100W FUSB3307 PD 3.0 PPS EVBに変えています。5Gスマートフォンは 最初に5Vの固定PDOを要求し供給を受けはじめますが、約7秒後にPPS(3V~21V/5A)PDOを要求し、供給を受けはじめます。5Gスマートフォンはその後即座に210msごとに要求電圧(赤線)を40mVステップで 8Vから9.28Vへと上昇させるアルゴリズムに入り、その際、電流(青線)を約7秒のスパンで2Aから4Aにランプ(シンク)します。そして5Gスマートフォンは充電プロセス全体を通してFUSB3307電源とコミュニケーションを継続します。

図表6、7

 

5GスマートフォンPD 3.0とノート PC PD 2.0の充電様相の比較

先ほどのノート PC で示したPD2.0の電力供給は、効果的である一方で、比較的に単純です。接続してから最初の1秒間で20V/1.5Aの電力供給条件を要求し、供給されますが、それ以上のPDの変化は見られません。対して、PPS付きの5Gスマートフォンの動作は全く異なります。5Gスマートフォンは洗練された充電アルゴリズムのマスターとして、自身の負荷電流を巧妙にランプするため、常にFUSB3307電源に出力電圧の調節を指示します。

 

5Gスマートフォン/FUSB3307のピーク電力は、37.68W(9.6V/3.925A)で接続して約60秒後に観察されます。これは、筆者が見積もっていた、約22分(0%から50% SoC)のTTCを実現するために必要な1.5Cレート、言い換えると 32.6Wでバッテリを充電するために必要な値と近いものです(図表2)。これが急速充電です。

 

高効率な急速充電の「ABC」とPPS

5Gとディスプレイの大型化に伴い、スマートフォンのバッテリの大容量化が進んでいます。ユーザーの「急速充電」への期待とあいまって、最近発売された5Gスマートフォンの場合、トラベルアダプタからより多くの電力(45W程度)を要求します。しかし、消費電力が増加すれば、熱としての電力の損失も増加してしまいます。そのため、今まで以上に効率が重要な要素になっています。そこでPPSの出番になったのです。

 

図表8に示しす一般的な「Wall to Battery(コンセントからバッテリへ)」リチウムイオン充電のブロック図を見てみると、その目的はPMICを介してシステムに電力を供給し、並行してパワーパスFETを介して、1Sセルを0%(約3V)から100%(4.35V)まで充電することです。技術方式(スイッチング、リニア、バイパス)に関わらず、入力電圧(B)が出力電圧(C)、またはVBATをわずかに上回っている限り、この充電器は常により高効率で動作します。さらに複雑なことに、VBATは以下の2つの理由から常に動き続けます。

1) 充電プロファイル中にバッテリの電圧がゼロからフル充電に上昇し、

2) 非同期負荷の変化とともに、バッテリの電圧が上下する

効率を最適化するために、トラベルアダプタ(TA)の出力(A)の電圧は、シンクのMCUによって厳密にコントロールされる必要があります。これが「充電アルゴリズムマスター」になります。バッテリ残量ゲージでのVBATの読み取り、チャージポンプの出力電圧(VOUT)を検知するまでの間、MCUポリシーマネジャー(Policy Manager)はCCピンを通し、20mVの細かいステップでPD規格に対応したTAVOUTを厳密にコントロールできます(PPS)。

 

PPSの追加によって、モバイル機器はより大容量のバッテリをより速く、より安全に、より効率的に充電できるようになりました。FUSB3307EVB(評価ボード)(図表9)は5Gスマートフォンの高度なPPS充電アルゴリズムを完璧にサポートしています。

図表8

 

FUSB3307EVB評価ボード

FUSB3307 EVBは、4.5V~32VのDC入力に対応し、5V~20VのUSB PD出力を供給しており、PD 2.0と、プログラマブルパワーサプライ(Programmable Power Supply、PPS)を含むPD 3.0の両方の規格に準拠しています。FUSB3307はステートマシンベースのPDコントローラおよびUSB-Cポートコントローラです。したがって、MCUは不要であり、ファームウェアの開発も必要ありません。ファームウェアがないということは、耐タンパー性があることを意味し、医療用途においてメリットになり得ます。接続するだけで自律的に動作します。FUSB3307ステートマシンにはPDポリシーマネジャが含まれ、FUSB3307 CATH出力ピンでComp入力を駆動することにより、NCV81599 バックブーストを制御します。FUSB3307は、VBUS FETも自律的に制御します。

 

図表9

 

この評価ボードの詳細は、FUSB3307 EVBの資料をご参照ください。引き続きオン・セミコンダクターのUSB-C ソリューションにご注目いただき、様々なアプリケーションにおけるお客様の設計・ソリューションの実現にお役立てください。

 

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8. Indemnification. Licensee acknowledges and agrees that Licensee is solely and wholly responsible and liable for any and all Modifications, Licensee Products, and any and all of Licensee's Products other products and/or services, including without limitation, with respect to the installation, manufacturing, testing, distribution, use, support and/or maintenance of any of the foregoing. Licensee shall, at Licensee's sole expense, defend, indemnify and hold harmless ON Semiconductor and its subsidiaries and affiliates from and against any and all claims, demands, suits, actions, and proceedings ("Claim(s)"), and all related damages, costs, and expenses (including reasonable attorneys fees), arising from, related to or in connection with Modifications, Licensee Products, and the Content in combination with Modifications and/or Licensee Products, including without limitation, in relation to product liability or infringement of third party rights. ON Semiconductor shall: (a) notify Licensee promptly upon learning of such a Claim; (b) give Licensee reasonable information and assistance regarding such Claim; and (c) tender to Licensee authority to direct the defense of such Claim, including negotiation of any settlement in relation thereto, provided however that Licensee shall not enter into any such settlement without ON Semiconductor's express prior written consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld.

9. Publicity. Licensee agrees that it shall not issue any press releases containing, nor advertise, reference, reproduce, use or display, ON Semiconductor's name or any ON Semiconductor trademark without ON Semiconductor's express prior written consent in each instance; provided, however, that Licensee may indicate that the Licensee Product is interoperable with ON Semiconductor Products in product documentation and collateral material for the Licensee Product.

10. Performance Comparisons. Licensee shall not distribute externally or disclose to any Customer or to any third party any reports or statements that directly compare the speed, functionality or other performance results or characteristics of the Software with any similar third party products without the express prior written consent of ON Semiconductor in each instance; provided, however, that Licensee may disclose such reports or statements to Licensee's consultants (i) that have a need to have access to such reports or statements for purposes of the license grant of this Agreement, and (ii) that have entered into a written confidentiality agreement with Licensee no less restrictive than that certain NDA.

11. Miscellaneous.

11.1 Governing Law. This Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the State of New York, and applicable U.S. federal law, without giving effect to conflict of law or to choice of law principles, and excluding the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, if applicable.

11.2 Assignment. Neither this Agreement, nor any of the rights or obligations herein, may be assigned or transferred by Licensee without the express prior written consent of ON Semiconductor, and any attempt to do so in violation of the foregoing shall be null and void. Subject to the foregoing, this Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties, their successors and assigns.

11.3 Limitations on Use. The Software is not designed, developed, licensed or provided for use in connection with any nuclear facility, or in connection with the flight, navigation or communication of aircraft or ground support equipment, or in connection with military or medical equipment/applications or activities, or any other inherently dangerous or high risk equipment/applications or activities ("High Risk Use"). Licensee agrees that ON Semiconductor (and its licensors/suppliers) shall not be liable or responsible for any claims, losses, demands, costs, expenses or liabilities whatsoever arising from or in relation to any such High Risk Use of the Content, Software, Modifications or Licensee Products by Licensee or Customers.

11.4 Severability; Waiver. Any provision of this Agreement which is held to be invalid or unenforceable by a court in any jurisdiction shall, as to such jurisdiction, be severed from this Agreement and ineffective to the extent of such invalidity or unenforceability without invalidating the remaining portions hereof or affecting the validity or enforceability of such provision in any other jurisdiction. Failure by either party hereto to enforce any term of this Agreement shall not be held a waiver of such term nor prevent enforcement of such term thereafter, unless and to the extent expressly set forth in a writing signed by the party charged with such waiver.

11.5 Remedies Not Exclusive. The remedies herein are not exclusive, but rather are cumulative and in addition to all other remedies available to ON Semiconductor.

11.6 Records; Audit. Licensee agrees that it shall maintain accurate and complete records relating to its activities under Section 2.1(b)(iii) of this Agreement during the term of this Agreement. Upon reasonable advance written notice, ON Semiconductor shall have the right no more frequently than once in any 12 month period during the term of the Agreement, through an independent third party approved by Licensee in writing (such approval not to be unreasonably withheld), to examine and audit such records and Licensee's compliance with the terms of Section 2.1(b)(iii) of this Agreement. Any such audit shall not interfere with the ordinary business operations of Licensee and shall be conducted at the expense of ON Semiconductor. All reports, documents, materials and other information collected or prepared during an audit shall be deemed to be the confidential information of Licensee ("Licensee Confidential Information"), and ON Semiconductor shall protect the confidentiality of all Licensee Confidential Information; provided that, such Licensee Confidential Information shall not be disclosed to any third parties with the sole exception of the independent third party auditor approved by Licensee in writing, and its permitted use shall be restricted to the purposes of the audit rights described in this Section 11.6.

11.7 No Joint Venture, Agency, etc. Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as creating a joint venture, agency, partnership, trust or other similar association of any kind between the parties hereto. The parties hereto are for all purposes of this Agreement independent contractors, and neither shall hold itself out as having any authority to act as an agent or partner of the other party, or in any way bind or commit the other party to any obligations.

11.8 Interpretation. In this Agreement, words importing a singular number only shall include the plural and vice versa, and section numbers and headings are for convenience of reference only and shall not affect the construction or interpretation hereof.

11.9 Entire Agreement; Amendment; Counterparts; Facsimile Copies. This Agreement, including the Exhibits attached hereto, constitutes the entire agreement and understanding between the parties hereto regarding the subject matter hereof and supersedes all other agreements, understandings, promises, representations or discussions, written or oral, between the parties regarding the subject matter hereof. This Agreement may not be amended except in writing signed by an authorized representative of each of the parties hereto. This Agreement may be executed in counterparts, each of which shall be deemed to be an original, and which together shall constitute one and the same agreement. Each party hereto may deliver an executed copy of this Agreement to the other party via facsimile or other electronic means, and such executed copy(ies) sent/received via facsimile or other electronic means shall be deemed an original and binding copy.

12. Confidentiality. Notwithstanding any terms to the contrary in any non-disclosure agreements between the Parties, Licensee shall treat this Agreement and the Content as ON Semiconductor's "Confidential Information" including: not using the Confidential Information except as expressly set forth herein or otherwise authorized in writing; implementing reasonable procedures to prohibit the disclosure, unauthorized duplication, misuse or removal of the Confidential Information; and not disclosing the Confidential Information to any third party except as may be necessary and required in connection with the rights and obligations under this Agreement and subject to confidentiality obligations at least as protective as those set forth herein, or as otherwise required by law. It is expressly understood that all Confidential Information transferred hereunder, and all copies, modifications, and derivatives thereof, will remain the property of ON Semiconductor, and the Licensee is authorized to use those materials only in accordance with the terms and conditions of this Agreement. Upon termination of this Agreement or upon written request, License shall either return all Confidential Information to ON Semiconductor along with all copies and/or derivatives made, including that on computer databases and copies of portions of the Confidential Information, or destroy all such Confidential Information and certify by written memorandum that all such Confidential Information has been destroyed.

Nothing contained in this Agreement limits a party from filing a truthful complaint, or the party's ability to communicate directly to, or otherwise participate in either: (i) any investigation or proceeding with a United States government agency alleging a securities law violation, waste, fraud, or abuse; or (ii) an investigation or proceeding that is protected under a whistleblower provision of a U.S. federal law or regulation.

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