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Wi-Fiを利用するスマートホームセンシング

著者:  Scott Tan  - 09-29-2020 

はじめに

Wi-Fiは、現在最も普及している無線通信技術の1つです。使いやすく容易に設置でき、経済的です。性能は年々向上し続けています。2020年時点で、米国の世帯では平均11台の機器が接続されており、そのほとんどがWi-Fi技術を使用していました。技術の進歩により、Wi-Fiは、単に接続とネットワークサービスを提供する通信技術ではなく、スマートホームおよびIoTアプリケーションにおいて、セキュリティ、安全性、および家族介護サービスを提供できるセンシング技術となりました。Wi-Fiセンシング技術は、モーション検出、人の行動の検知と認識、バイタルサインの検出など、さまざまな機能とアプリケーションをサポートしています。

Wi-Fiは住宅および建物に幅広く導入されているため、Wi-Fiセンシングは本質的にコスト効率の良い検知技術の1つです。既存のWi-Fi ルータ、メッシュノード、およびクライアント機器の信号が結び付けられ、モーション検出や人の行動の検知などのアプリケーションにおいて、住居全体をカバーしたWi-Fiセンシングネットワークを形成しています。個別の特別なセンシングネットワークを構築するために、センサやゲートウェイを追加する必要はありません。

カメラや赤外線(IR)ベースの検知および監視ソリューションと異なり、Wi-Fiセンシングには多くの利点があります。たとえば、NLOS (non-line-of-sight、見通し外)の条件で動作可能であり、より長距離で広角度のため、より広い範囲をカバーできます。また、利用者のプライバシーを保護し、風呂場や寝室などプライベートな場所にも設置できます。

Wi-Fiセンシングは、機器間のデータ通信に使用される通常のパケットおよび信号から情報を収集します。新たな信号や特別な信号は必要なく、ネットワーク性能やユーザー体験が低下することもありません。

Wi-Fi は、2.4GHz、5GHz、6GHz、および60GHz の周波数帯を使用します。この3つの週h数帯におけるWi-Fi 信号の波長は、 4.2cm (6GHz帯)~12.4cm (2.4GHz帯)です。この種の信号は、人体に関わるモーション検出、動作の検出と認識に加え、呼吸数や心拍数の検知においても非常に適しています。これらのセンシングは、より精巧なアンテナ、DSP (digital signal processing、デジタル信号処理)、機械学習のアルゴリズムとテクニックの使用により実現できます。

過去には、RSSI (Receive Signal Strength Indicator、受信信号強度インジケータ)がWi-Fiセンシングに使用されました。 RSSI は、無線環境における任意単位での相対的な受信信号強度であり、通常はパケットごとに測定されます。MIMO システムにおいて、多くのベンダは最も強力なアンテナのRSSI のみを計測しますが、オン・セミコンダクターのQCS-AXおよびQSC-AX2 製品は、各アンテナのRSSI値を計測します。RSSIはキメが粗く解像度が低い上に、パケットごとに1つの値しかありません。そのためWi-Fiセンシングのソリューションでは、RSSI はCSI(チャネル状態情報)により置き換えられつつあります。

CSIとは?

CSI(Channel State Information、チャネル状態情報)は、CFR(channel frequency response、チャネル周波数応答)の抽出版であり、CIR(Channel Impulse Response、チャネルインパルス応答)の周波数領域版です。QCS-AXおよびQCS-AX2のソリューションにおいて、CSIは最大8台のアンテナを介して、パケットごとに最大8個の空間ストリームおよび最大160MHz チャネルをリアルタイムにキャプチャできます。下記の行列は、1X1 SISO (single-input and single-output、単入力単出力)クライアントから80MHz 信号の4X4 MIMO (multiple-input and multiple-output、多入力多出力)受信機で捕捉されたCSIの例を示しています。この行列は、クライアントがMIMOをサポートしている場合は3次元となり、複数のアンテナでストリームを送信できます。

注記:各行はアンテナ、各列はサブキャリアを示します。80MHz帯域幅の場合は合計234個のサブキャリア、160MHzの場合は合計468個のサブキャリアを利用できます。

上記より、CSIは非常にキメが細かく高解像であることが容易に確認できます。周波数域および空間領域の多様性が増加します。さらに、各CSIは増幅および位相の値を有し、1桁の整数でパケットごとに信号の強度だけを示すRSSIよりも、はるかに多くの情報を持ちます。

図1  20MHzクライアントからのパケットのCSI振幅と位相の例

 

時系列のCSI情報は、モーション検出、動作の検知と認識からバイタル検知に至るまで、すべてのWi-Fiセンシングのアプリケーションにおいて非常に重要であることを理解しておくことが大切です。オン・セミコンダクターのWi-Fi 6チップセットQCS-AXおよびQCS-AX2 は、最大3ミリ秒の間隔でリアルタイムのCSIをキャプチャできます。Wi-FiセンシングにCSIを使用することで、キメの細かさ、感度、精度、および堅牢性を大幅に向上できます。

表1  QCS-AXおよびQCS-AX2ソリューションでサポートされているCSI機能の概要

 

Wi-Fi モーション検出

モーション検出は、CSIベースのWi-Fi センシングを使用した最も役に立つアプリケーションの1つです。 Wi-Fiベースのモーション検出ソリューションは、キャリアおよびコンシューマ分野で、多くのティア 1 ホームWi-Fiゲートウェイ、ルータ、およびメッシュベンダによって導入されつつあります。ビジネスおよび産業用アプリケーションでも興味が高まりつつあります。これらソリューションは、使い易いモーション検出機能およびさまざまな位置特定機能を提供しています。ベンダが異なれば、モーション検出を認識するための技術およびアルゴリズムが異なる場合があります。また使用事例は、技術およびビジネスの焦点の違いにより異なる場合があります。オン・セミコンダクターは、さまざまな市場およびアプリケーションに対応するために、多くのベンダとパートナー関係を構築しています。QCS-AXおよびQCS-AX2チップセットファミリは、ベンダごとのさまざまな実装の違いにより必要とされる、すべての機能を提供しています。また、オン・セミコンダクターは、さまざまな使用事例および導入モデルをサポートするために、キャリア、小売り、または産業向けチャネルを通して、ベンダと密接に協力しています。

1つの使用事例は、Wi-Fi モーションセンサを使用して実現されています。従来のモーションセンサの導入と同様、この種のセンサの多くは住居の周囲に設置され、ルータ、メッシュノード、リピータなど既存のWi-Fiネットワーク機器へ接続されています。センサとネットワーク機器間との接続および信号は、モーション検出のための検知ネットワークを形成します。Wi-Fi モーション検出センサは、Wi-Fiネットワーク機器または内部のメッシュをサポートしている場合、他のセンサから受け取ったWi-Fi 信号からCSIデータを捕捉します。このモデルはセンサの計算能力が限られているため、CSIデータ処理およびWi-Fi モーション検出アルゴリズムは、通常クラウドで実行されます。また、センサはWi-Fiネットワークの通信時間をかなり消費するため、状況によってネットワーク性能を低下させる場合があります。

もう1つの使用事例として、一部のWi-Fi モーション検出のソリューションプロバイダにより、Wi-Fi メッシュノードを介して提供されていることが挙げられます。メッシュノード間の信号は、自然なメッシュセンシングネットワークを形成します。ゲートウェイ、ルータ、およびリピータを含むメッシュネットワーク内のすべてのネットワーク機器は、CSIのキャプチャをサポートしています。CSIデータ処理およびモーション検出アルゴリズムは、クラウドで実行されるのが一般的です。一部のベンダのソリューションでは、CSI データの前処理は、メッシュノード内のエッジでローカルに実行される場合があり、これにより帯域幅を節約し、クラウド側のCPU使用率を減らし、検出のレイテンシーを改善しています。ます。このモデルには多くの利点があります。1つは、メッシュノードが、メッシュノードとクライアントとの通常の通信に使用される受信信号からCSIデータをキャプチャするため、モーション検出のためにWi-Fi通信時間または帯域幅を追加する必要ない点です。さらに通常、メッシュノードは、より高次のMIMOをサポートしているため、モーション検出のカバー範囲と堅牢性の面でメリットがあります。最後に、各メッシュノードに搭載されているソフトウェアは、CSIデータのキャプチャにおいて送信と受信の両方を制御できます。つまり、より高解像度のモーション検出結果を手に入れ、より精度の高い位置特定機能をサポートするために、カスタマイズされたパケットまたは信号を生成できます。このモデルでは、住居全体のセンシングのために、より多くのメッシュノードが必要な場合があります。

図2 メッシュノード(ネットワーク機器)を介したモーション検出の使用および設置事例

 

他の使用事例として、メッシュノードおよびOFDM対応の既存のWi-Fi 機器を介した事例があります(従来の802.11bのみの機器は、直交周波数分割多重化をサポートしていないため除外されます)。先述のメッシュノードモデルのすべての利点に加え、このモデルのもう1つの大きな利点は、Wi-Fi カメラ、スマート照明、プリンタなど、既存のWi-Fi クライアント機器がすべてモーション検出センサとなることです。メッシュノード(ネットワーク機器)間の信号は、クライアント機器とメッシュノード間の信号と併せて、はるかに密度の高いセンシングネットワークを形成します。つまり、センシングネットワークのカバー範囲は、はるかに包括的であり、通常はメッシュノードやWi-Fi 機器を追加設置することなく、住居全体をカバーできます。このモデルのもう1つの利点は、Wi-Fi クライアント機器をWi-Fi モーション検出センサとして使用するために、ソフトウェアやハードウェアの変更が不要であることです。このモデルの場合、CSIデータはメッシュノードでキャプチャされます。メッシュノードは、対応するクライアント機器に関するCSIデータをキャプチャするだけでなく、他のネットワーク機器および他のノードと対応する Wi-Fi 機器に関してCSIデータをスニッフィングモードでキャプチャできます。

図3 メッシュノード(ネットワーク機器)および設置済みのクライアント機器を介したモーション検出の使用および設置事例

 

オン・セミコンダクターは、上記の多くの使用事例をサポートする複数のベンダと協力しています。QCS-AXおよびQCS-AX2 によるWi-Fi 6ソリューションは、これらのモデルで必要なすべての CSI キャプチャ機能をサポートしています。Wi-Fiセンシングの動作の詳細に関しついては、当社のホワイトペーパをお読みください。Wi-Fiベースのセンシングソリューションを使用した人間の動作の検出と認識に関しては、今後も引き続き当社のブログでご紹介します。

 

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Tags:IoT, Wi-Fi, Motion Detection, Wi-Fi Sensing
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8. Indemnification. Licensee acknowledges and agrees that Licensee is solely and wholly responsible and liable for any and all Modifications, Licensee Products, and any and all of Licensee's Products other products and/or services, including without limitation, with respect to the installation, manufacturing, testing, distribution, use, support and/or maintenance of any of the foregoing. Licensee shall, at Licensee's sole expense, defend, indemnify and hold harmless ON Semiconductor and its subsidiaries and affiliates from and against any and all claims, demands, suits, actions, and proceedings ("Claim(s)"), and all related damages, costs, and expenses (including reasonable attorneys fees), arising from, related to or in connection with Modifications, Licensee Products, and the Content in combination with Modifications and/or Licensee Products, including without limitation, in relation to product liability or infringement of third party rights. ON Semiconductor shall: (a) notify Licensee promptly upon learning of such a Claim; (b) give Licensee reasonable information and assistance regarding such Claim; and (c) tender to Licensee authority to direct the defense of such Claim, including negotiation of any settlement in relation thereto, provided however that Licensee shall not enter into any such settlement without ON Semiconductor's express prior written consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld.

9. Publicity. Licensee agrees that it shall not issue any press releases containing, nor advertise, reference, reproduce, use or display, ON Semiconductor's name or any ON Semiconductor trademark without ON Semiconductor's express prior written consent in each instance; provided, however, that Licensee may indicate that the Licensee Product is interoperable with ON Semiconductor Products in product documentation and collateral material for the Licensee Product.

10. Performance Comparisons. Licensee shall not distribute externally or disclose to any Customer or to any third party any reports or statements that directly compare the speed, functionality or other performance results or characteristics of the Software with any similar third party products without the express prior written consent of ON Semiconductor in each instance; provided, however, that Licensee may disclose such reports or statements to Licensee's consultants (i) that have a need to have access to such reports or statements for purposes of the license grant of this Agreement, and (ii) that have entered into a written confidentiality agreement with Licensee no less restrictive than that certain NDA.

11. Miscellaneous.

11.1 Governing Law. This Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the State of New York, and applicable U.S. federal law, without giving effect to conflict of law or to choice of law principles, and excluding the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, if applicable.

11.2 Assignment. Neither this Agreement, nor any of the rights or obligations herein, may be assigned or transferred by Licensee without the express prior written consent of ON Semiconductor, and any attempt to do so in violation of the foregoing shall be null and void. Subject to the foregoing, this Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties, their successors and assigns.

11.3 Limitations on Use. The Software is not designed, developed, licensed or provided for use in connection with any nuclear facility, or in connection with the flight, navigation or communication of aircraft or ground support equipment, or in connection with military or medical equipment/applications or activities, or any other inherently dangerous or high risk equipment/applications or activities ("High Risk Use"). Licensee agrees that ON Semiconductor (and its licensors/suppliers) shall not be liable or responsible for any claims, losses, demands, costs, expenses or liabilities whatsoever arising from or in relation to any such High Risk Use of the Content, Software, Modifications or Licensee Products by Licensee or Customers.

11.4 Severability; Waiver. Any provision of this Agreement which is held to be invalid or unenforceable by a court in any jurisdiction shall, as to such jurisdiction, be severed from this Agreement and ineffective to the extent of such invalidity or unenforceability without invalidating the remaining portions hereof or affecting the validity or enforceability of such provision in any other jurisdiction. Failure by either party hereto to enforce any term of this Agreement shall not be held a waiver of such term nor prevent enforcement of such term thereafter, unless and to the extent expressly set forth in a writing signed by the party charged with such waiver.

11.5 Remedies Not Exclusive. The remedies herein are not exclusive, but rather are cumulative and in addition to all other remedies available to ON Semiconductor.

11.6 Records; Audit. Licensee agrees that it shall maintain accurate and complete records relating to its activities under Section 2.1(b)(iii) of this Agreement during the term of this Agreement. Upon reasonable advance written notice, ON Semiconductor shall have the right no more frequently than once in any 12 month period during the term of the Agreement, through an independent third party approved by Licensee in writing (such approval not to be unreasonably withheld), to examine and audit such records and Licensee's compliance with the terms of Section 2.1(b)(iii) of this Agreement. Any such audit shall not interfere with the ordinary business operations of Licensee and shall be conducted at the expense of ON Semiconductor. All reports, documents, materials and other information collected or prepared during an audit shall be deemed to be the confidential information of Licensee ("Licensee Confidential Information"), and ON Semiconductor shall protect the confidentiality of all Licensee Confidential Information; provided that, such Licensee Confidential Information shall not be disclosed to any third parties with the sole exception of the independent third party auditor approved by Licensee in writing, and its permitted use shall be restricted to the purposes of the audit rights described in this Section 11.6.

11.7 No Joint Venture, Agency, etc. Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as creating a joint venture, agency, partnership, trust or other similar association of any kind between the parties hereto. The parties hereto are for all purposes of this Agreement independent contractors, and neither shall hold itself out as having any authority to act as an agent or partner of the other party, or in any way bind or commit the other party to any obligations.

11.8 Interpretation. In this Agreement, words importing a singular number only shall include the plural and vice versa, and section numbers and headings are for convenience of reference only and shall not affect the construction or interpretation hereof.

11.9 Entire Agreement; Amendment; Counterparts; Facsimile Copies. This Agreement, including the Exhibits attached hereto, constitutes the entire agreement and understanding between the parties hereto regarding the subject matter hereof and supersedes all other agreements, understandings, promises, representations or discussions, written or oral, between the parties regarding the subject matter hereof. This Agreement may not be amended except in writing signed by an authorized representative of each of the parties hereto. This Agreement may be executed in counterparts, each of which shall be deemed to be an original, and which together shall constitute one and the same agreement. Each party hereto may deliver an executed copy of this Agreement to the other party via facsimile or other electronic means, and such executed copy(ies) sent/received via facsimile or other electronic means shall be deemed an original and binding copy.

12. Confidentiality. Notwithstanding any terms to the contrary in any non-disclosure agreements between the Parties, Licensee shall treat this Agreement and the Content as ON Semiconductor's "Confidential Information" including: not using the Confidential Information except as expressly set forth herein or otherwise authorized in writing; implementing reasonable procedures to prohibit the disclosure, unauthorized duplication, misuse or removal of the Confidential Information; and not disclosing the Confidential Information to any third party except as may be necessary and required in connection with the rights and obligations under this Agreement and subject to confidentiality obligations at least as protective as those set forth herein, or as otherwise required by law. It is expressly understood that all Confidential Information transferred hereunder, and all copies, modifications, and derivatives thereof, will remain the property of ON Semiconductor, and the Licensee is authorized to use those materials only in accordance with the terms and conditions of this Agreement. Upon termination of this Agreement or upon written request, License shall either return all Confidential Information to ON Semiconductor along with all copies and/or derivatives made, including that on computer databases and copies of portions of the Confidential Information, or destroy all such Confidential Information and certify by written memorandum that all such Confidential Information has been destroyed.

Nothing contained in this Agreement limits a party from filing a truthful complaint, or the party's ability to communicate directly to, or otherwise participate in either: (i) any investigation or proceeding with a United States government agency alleging a securities law violation, waste, fraud, or abuse; or (ii) an investigation or proceeding that is protected under a whistleblower provision of a U.S. federal law or regulation.

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