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アップストリームへの波及 - オートモーティブ用途のアップストリームPOL変換に関する考察

著者:  Kieran McDonald  - 05-30-2016 

(オリジナル投稿日 2015-07-08)

多くのオートモーティブ電源アーキテクチャでは、アップストリームPOL (point-of-load)変換が必要とされています。特に、先進/自律型運転支援システム(ADAS)アプリケーションでは、多くのシステム・オン・チップ(SoC)とデジタル信号プロセッサ(DSP)の低いコア電圧が原因で、現在のスイッチ・モード電源(SMPS)の最大変換率やメイン・スイッチの最小オフ時間能力で対処しきれなくなっています。POL変換は通常、バッテリに接続されている1次側レール電圧から、特定の負荷が必要とするそれより低い2次側電圧レールへの降圧変換に関わっています。アプリケーションや負荷によっては、低ノイズ、高PSRR、高レベルの負荷過渡応答など、他の属性が必要とされることもあります。ただし、1次側コンバータに接続されているバッテリのアップストリームに2次側電源を単純に追加する方法は、問題を生じる可能性があります。

多くの2次側レールは、リニア・レギュレータから供給されています。多くの状況では、例えば電源ノイズに敏感なRF回路などが想定され、消費電力は懸案にならず、代わりにノイズと電源変動除去比(PSRR)を最適化する必要があります。消費電力が初期の懸案になるときでも、ほとんどの場合は1次側電源から中間レール電圧を生成する方法で、2次側電源としてリニア・レギュレータを使用できます。非常に大きい負荷電流レベルをサポートできる低ノイズのリニア・レギュレータが存在する中で、非常に低いドロップ電圧を達成している製品もあります。NCP59300NCP59748は、低ノイズ特性に加えて非常に低いドロップアウト電圧も達成している大電流(それぞれ3.0Aと1.5A)を供給できるリニア・レギュレータです。特に、NCP59748は1.5A出力時に最大165mVというわずかなドロップアウト電圧を達成していますが、これは主に、電源パスと内部回路バイアスに別々の入力を用意することで、内部回路バイアスから電源パスを分離する方法で実現しています (図1)。この結果、リニア・レギュレータが前述のようにドロップアウト条件を維持できる場合、より高い電圧レールからソースへのバイアス入力と、より低い電圧レールからソースへの電源経路入力により、消費電力が最小化されます。

 

図1 –VinとVbiasに対して別々のソースを用意したNCP59748

 

一方、効率と消費電力が主要な懸案になる多くのアプリケーションでは、2次側SMPSを使用します。この場合、1次側SMPSの出力が、2次側SMPS負荷への入力電流になります。ここでは、2次側に接続されている負荷が、SMPSによって生成されるノイズに対してそれほど敏感でないことを想定していますが、敏感な場合は出力フィルタを採用する必要があります。

2次側コンバータが1次側コンバータの出力に対する負荷として動作する状況では、両者のフィルタ、およびあらゆる付加的な中間フィルタの相互作用について考慮する必要が生じます。2次側コンバータのバルク入力容量が、物理的に1次側コンバータの出力のすぐ近くに配置されている場合は、それに応じて1次側コンバータのバルク出力容量を小さくすることができますが、一方でリップルとループ応答性能を引き続き維持する必要もあります。ただし、通常は基板上の長いトレースや、場合によってはハーネスが原因で、2個のコンバータを相互接続したうえで、バルク・コンデンサを使用してデカップリングを行い、中間フィルタ処理を行うことになります。この場合、バルク容量の値を小さくする手法には利点がなく、中間フィルタによるインピーダンス負荷効果が寄生成分または他の成分のいずれによるものであっても、そのような効果に注意を払う必要が生じます。注意を怠ると、アップストリーム・コンバータの安定性に問題が生じる可能性があります。入力フィルタのインピーダンスが、SMPSの入力インピーダンスより大きくなると、発振を引き起こすおそれがあります。

高容量レベルが原因で生じる可能性がある別の問題は、2次側POLコンバータの出力で生じるものです。SMPSを起動した結果、何らかの残留電圧によって出力コンデンサが部分的または完全に充電された場合、SMPSがロー・サイドMOSFETを通じて電流をシンクする可能性があります。その結果、負の電流制限に達するので、NCV6323同期バック・コンバータまたはNCV894630スイッチ・モード・レギュレータでロー・サイドMOSFETを故障から保護する必要があります。

複数の2次側コンバータが単一の1次側コンバータの負荷として動作し、複数の2次側コンバータが発振器の同期が可能な同期入力を備えている場合は、フェーズ・ポジショニングを使用して2次側コンバータの発振器のタイミングをインターリーブすることができます。不連続入力電流を受け入れるバック・コンバータにとっては、この動作が特に利点になります。これは、コンバータのハイサイド・スイッチが原因で、大きいリップル電流が生じる傾向があり、その結果、フィルタ処理を行うために大容量のバルク入力コンデンサが必要になるためです。これらのコンバータのスイッチングの位相をシフトすると、入力電流のオーバーラップが回避され、その結果、入力リップルも小さくなるため、必要な入力フィルタのサイズを小さくすることができます。事実、NCV890101などの一部の1次側コンバータは、180度位相シフトされたスレーブ同期出力を用意しており、この出力を使用して複数の1次側コンバータを互いに同期、または1次側コンバータとその負荷である2次側コンバータを同期することで、位相をずらすと同時に、同じ基本周波数を活用して動作させることができます。すべてのコンバータを同じ基本周波数に同期させると、偏差のない同一周波数に固定された方法で全体のスイッチングを維持し、電磁放射に関する利点を達成できます。

図2 –マスター周波数を使用してスレーブを同期する2個の1次側コンバータ

このように、大電流のPOL変換を行う場合でもリニア・レギュレータを使用できること、しかも特定のアプリケーションでは上記のようにSMPSを上回る利点が達成できることがあります。SMPSが必要な場合でも、大容量の出力容量、入力フィルタの不整合、インターリーブに伴う欠点からコンバータを保護するために検討を行うことが求められます。

 

Tags:Automotive, MOSFET
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