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PoEによるスマートビルディングへの電力供給方法

著者:  Bob Card  - 09-25-2020 

PoEによるスマートビルディングへの電力供給方法

Power Over Ethernet (PoE)は、スマートビルディングに電力供給する上で多くの利点を提供します。ほとんどのオフィスビルには、停電中も重要なネットワーク機器の稼働を続けるために、バッテリー駆動式のUPS (無停電電源装置)付きの集中ネットワーククロゼットを備えたイーサネットインフラが導入されています。PoE接続により、IT部門は、ネットワーククロゼットから最長100メートル離れた場所で、セキュリティカメラなどの重要な電子機器に電力を供給できます。さらにコスト削減する場合でも、PoEの設備で電子技師は必要ではなく、国際的な安全性コンプライアンスを維持します。電力とデータの統合により、照明セキュリティ、標識などのアプリケーションがはるかに効率的になり、Wi-Fi性能は、電源コンセントから戦略的に離れた場所に設置された場合に向上します。

2018年10月、最大90ワットの電源およびAutoclassなどの追加機能をサポートするPoE の新しいIEEE仕様(IEEE802.3bt)が批准されました。IEEE 802.3btは、従来の基準と比較して大幅増の最大90ワットをサポートポートすることで、スマートビルディング内のコネクテッド照明や標識など高出力アプリケーションへの道を開きます。本ブログでは、PoE システムの概要を示し、IEEE 802.3btの新機能に焦点を当てます。

図1 スマートビルディング・アプリケーションに関するIEEE仕様

 

PoE トポロジ

PoE システムは非常に簡単です。PoEネットワークスイッチはPSE(給電デバイス)であり、イーサネットケーブル(通常、 CAT5)を介してPoE装置(PD)へ電力を供給します。

図2 基本的なPoE トポロジ

 

2ペア電源 vs 4ペア電源

IEEE 802.3btと従来のPoE仕様との大きな違いは、新基準ではRJ45コネクタの4つすべてのペアを使用しているため、はるかに多くの電力を転送できることです。802.3bt仕様は、ペアの種類を8つの明確なクラスに分類しています。 PSE(給電デバイス)の視点から見ると、各PoE 2クラス(5~8)は15 Wのスライスであり、PDの視点から見ると、各PoE 2 クラスは11 Wのスライスです。タイプに対してクラスをより細かく分類することで接続されたPDへさまざまな電力を供給し、特に接続されているPSEポートの数が増えた場合、マルチポートのPSEの効率が最適化されます。

図3 2ペア電源 vs 4ペア電源

 

Autoclassおよび電力効率性

PSEは、PDへ接続された時点で、PDにより示されたプルダウン抵抗を計測することによって検出シグネチャを認識します。次にPD は、最大5つのクラスイベント/マークイベント中、PSEから要求されたクラスシグネチャ(電力要件)を生み出します。

IEEE 802.3bt仕様は、Autoclassと呼ばれる新しい機能を導入しました。PDはPSEがPDの分類を認識し、PDの電源およびスイッチが入れられた後1.2秒で最大電流をシンクします。次にPSEは電流を計測し、PD分類に基づいて一定のマージンを追加し、それが特定のPDに最終的に割り当てられる電力となります。

Autoclassは、PSEの電力割当を最適化することに役に立ちます。たとえば、PSEネットワークスイッチは、8個の802.3atポートと4個の802.3btポートに合計600 Wを供給するかもしれません(30W x 8 =240 W、および90W x 4 = 360W)。Autoclassがない場合に4個の802.3bt PDのうち2個がそれぞれ65 Wを必要とする場合、スイッチは、この2つのポートに180 Wを割り当てなければならないでしょう(90 W x 2ポート)。Autoclassがある場合、両方のbt PDに対する短いCAT5ケーブル長を想定し、各ポートに1.75 Wのマージンを追加すると、PSEネットワークスイッチは、2つの802.3btポートに最大136.5 Wを割り当てます(短いケーブル長でポートごとに最大66.5 W+ポートごとに1.75 Wのマージン = ポートごとに68.25W)。これで、PSEネットワークスイッチは他の10個のポート用に節約された43.5 W (180 W – 136.5 W)を使用できます。

IEEE 802.3bt PDアプリケーションブロック図

下記の図は、省エネIEEE 802.3bt 受電デバイスにおける部品の概要を示しています。左から右に移動すると、AC変圧器はイーサネット10/100/1000のデータを近くのプロセッサに連結します。高効率GreenBridge™ 2 MOSFETソリューションは、従来のシリコンダイオードのブリッジよりも少ない消費電力で全波整流を達成します。IEEE 802.3bt 準拠のNCP1095 コントローラのピン7は、25 kΩ検出プルダウン抵抗を示します。ピン2と3は、クラス(抵抗値)によりPDの電力要件を判断し、装着後の分類イベント中にそれをPSEへ伝えます。ピン6、8、9、および10は、外部のセンス抵抗を用いて、総合的に突入電流および過電流保護(OCP)を制御します。コンパニオンプロセッサへの3ビット通信は、ピン13、15、および16で達成されます。ピン14 のPGOピンは、下流のDCDCデバイスへ出力が良好であることを伝えます。ピン4によりNCP1095はローカルの補助電源から起動することができ、ピン6は効率性向上に向けてAutoclass機能を制御します。

図4 IEEE 802.3bt 受電デバイス(PD)のアプリケーション図

 

PoEの将来

IEEE 802.3btは、最大90ワットの電力とともに、分類、Autoclass、MPSなどの新機能を提供することにより、コネクテッド照明など、PoE に関わる多くの新しいスマートビルディング・アプリケーションへの道を切り開きます。

無線接続およびUSB Type C™の説明を含め、一連の包括的な技術トレーニングのプレゼンテーションは、オンデマンドでご視聴いただけます。

 

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